containing important new ideas that influence later developments:
“The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” is regarded as a seminal work of American literature.
a person who is responsible for an event or for the management of a place:
a race steward
He has been a careful steward of our parks.
A steward is also a person who is responsible for food or drink at a restaurant.
A steward ( female stewardess) on an aircraft, ship, or train is someone who helps and serves passengers.
to make something secret known:
The president’s new policy was unveiled at the press conference.
If you unveil something new, you show it or make it known for the first time:
The company recently unveiled a test version of its new search engine.
a suggestion of something that is made without saying it directly:
[ U ] The implication was that the workers and management had already reached an agreement.
[ C ] What are the implications (= possible effects) of the new regulations?
familiar with, having experience of, or knowing:
She’s conversant with US foreign policy.
John’s conversant in Mandarin (= can use it in conversation.)
6.fl eshed out -pv
to add more details or information to something:
These plans need to be fleshed out with some more figures.
a short piece of writing, music, acting, etc. that clearly expresses the typical characteristics of something or someone:
She wrote several vignettes of small-town life.
noun [ C ] US
a quality of something that is not easy to notice but may be important:
Actors have to study the nuances of facial expression to show the whole range of emotions.
He gives a beautifully nuanced performance in a tricky role.
9.denomination – n
a religious group whose beliefs differ in some ways from other groups in the same religion:
The petition was signed by clergy from over 20 Protestant denominations.
a unit of value, esp. of money:
The machines take coins of any denomination.
He avoids denominational rivalries.-adj
10.tangible adj- tangible guidance
real and able to be shown or touched:
Drivers will see tangible improvements on major roadways.
unfold verb (DEVELOP)
[ I ] (of a situation or story) to develop or become clear:
Events unfolded in a way that no one could have predicted.
unfold verb (OPEN)
[ T ] to open or spread out something that has been folded:
She took the old wedding dress out and carefully unfolded it.
12.procurement – sekarana
the process of getting supplies:
a substantial budget for the procurement of military supplies
turf noun [ U ] (GRASS)
a surface layer of land consisting of grass and the earth in which its roots grow:
Lush turf lined the river’s banks.
Turf is also ground cover that looks like grass:
turf noun [ U ] (AREA)
infml the area that a person or group considers its own:
Judges feel that the courtroom is their private turf.
lace noun (MATERIAL)
[ U ] a decorative cloth that is made by weaving thin thread into delicate patterns having small spaces within them:
a lace curtain/handkerchief
lace noun (CORD)
[ C usually pl ] a cord used to close a shoe or boot; shoelace:
Your laces are untied.
a basic text for teaching something:
As a primer for Navaho thinking, this book is a good place to start.
literature a traditional story, esp. one which explains the early history or a cultural belief or practice of a group of people, or explains a natural event:
[ C ] Kids like the stories about the gods and goddesses of Greek and Roman myths.
A myth is also a commonly believed but false idea:
[ C ] Equal opportunity continues to be a myth for many.
17.an idea that is wrong because it is based on a failure to understand a situation:
[ + that clause ] It’s a common misconception that Americans think only about money.
to remove fears, doubts, or false ideas, usually by proving them wrong or unnecessary:
We need to dispel the myths and establish real facts.
19.chock – n
a block of wood that can be put under a wheel or a heavy object to prevent it from moving
goods that are easily made available, or a detailed list of goods, property, etc.:
[ C ] large inventories of oil and gasoline
[ U ] The store is closed while we’re taking inventory (= counting and listing all the goods).
to make something stronger, usually by adding more material or another piece:
Building codes in California required that steel rods be used to reinforce cinder-block construction.
Something that reinforces an idea or opinion provides proof or support:
But let me just cite one other fact to reinforce what you’re saying.
To reinforce an army is to provide it with more soldiers or weapons.
ragged adjective (IN BAD CONDITION)
(of clothes) torn and usually in bad condition from too much use, or (of people) wearing clothes in this condition:
A group of ragged children appeared, begging for coins.
ragged adjective (UNEVEN)
not straight or even:
His scalp had a ragged gash.
possibly true; able to be believed:
a plausible excuse/explanation
24.idiosyncrasies – n- vichitra
a strange or unusual habit, way of behaving, or feature:
One of her many idiosyncrasies is always smelling a book before opening it.
25.first and foremost
more than anything else:
In spite of her recent success as a novelist, she remains first and foremost a poet.
26.uncanny – adj
strange or mysterious; difficult or impossible to explain:
He has an uncanny ability to pick a winner.
Barb’s uncanny resemblance to Tia is scary.
persuasion noun (CHANGING IDEAS)
C2 [ U ] the action of persuading someone or of being persuaded:
It took a lot of persuasion to convince the committee of the advantages of the new plan.
She will help you – she just needs a little gentle persuasion.
The occasion will be a test of the senator’s powers of persuasion (= his ability to persuade people).
[ C ] a particular set of beliefs, esp. religious or political ones:
People of all religious persuasions are welcome.
an expression that describes a person or object by referring to something that is considered to possess similar characteristics:
[ C ] “A heart of stone” is a metaphor.
29.tenet – theory
a principle that is an accepted belief of a particular group:
A major tenet of the women’s movement has been that society needs their talents.
30.on the other hand – marokavaipu
the division of two things that are completely different:
I try to examine the dichotomy between what people think they are and what they.
existing as a natural and permanent quality of something or someone:svabhavika,anthargatamgaa
The drug has certain inherent side effects.
feeling no excitement about or admiration for something or someone:
I get the feeling that John’s colleagues are distinctly underwhelmed by his latest proposal.
fraud, fake, faker, role player, pseud, pretender, sham, shammer, pseudo, impostor
a person who pretends to be someone else in order to deceive others
an unfair or harmful action:
Calling him a liar does him a great disservice.
synonyms: unkindness, bad turn, ill turn, disfavor, injury, harm, hurt, damage, wrong, injustice
(of a change) severe and sudden; extreme:
In the desert there’s a drastic change in temperature from day to night. -adj
Our lives changed drastically when dad died and we had to move.-adv
to search, especially as if by digging, in order to find a thing or information:
She delved into her pocket to find some change.
38.walking through -pv
to slowly and carefully explain something to someone or show someone how to do something:
She walked me through the six-page document.
He’ll walk you through the procedure.
earth science- the hard, solid area of rock in the ground that supports the earth above it
Bedrock also means the principles and ideas on which something is based:
We feel that the family is the bedrock of society.
40.intuitive -adj -Sahajamaina
based on feelings rather than facts or proof:
an intuitive approach/judgment
Most people have an intuitive sense of right and wrong.
able to know or understand something because of feelings rather than facts or proof:
Men are often regarded as less intuitive than women.
41.credible-reliable, trusty, trustworthy, credible, believable, authentic
credibly-adv probably, plausibly, believably
synonyms: clean (up), wash, bathe, rinse, disinfect
to remove all the dirt or harmful substances from something:
Thoroughly cleanse the wound and the area around it.
synonyms: insinuate, suggest, hint (at), intimate, say indirectly, indicate, give someone to understand
unavoidable, inescapable, inexorable, ineluctable, assured, certain, sure, fixed
finely, gracefully, enticingly, exquisitely, genially, familiarly
gracefully, fancifully, fashionably, floridly, gaudily
47.bastion కోట బురుజు
stronghold, bulwark, defender, support, supporter, guard, protection, protector
consider, regard as, judge, adjudge, hold to be, view as, see as, take for, class as
49.elegant solution సొగసైన
stylish, graceful, tasteful, sophisticated, classic, chic, smart, fashionable, modish
నిర్లక్ష్యం, fail to notice, fail to spot, miss
have a view of, look over/across, look on to, look out on/over, give on to, command